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"On the Occasion of R. V. Goldstein's Seventieth Birthday," Mech. Solids. 45 (3), 309-311 (2010)
Year 2010 Volume 45 Number 3 Pages 309-311
DOI 10.3103/S0025654410030015
Title On the Occasion of R. V. Goldstein's Seventieth Birthday
Abstract May 7, 2010, is the seventieth birthday of Robert Veniaminovich Goldstein, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

In 1962, R. V. Goldstein graduated with honors from the Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics of Lomonosov Moscow State University in the speciality mechanics. Since that time his life has been full of scientific activities in the Academy of Sciences. He began as a post-graduate student at the Institute of Mechanics, Moscow State University (1962-1965); then he was a scientific researcher at the Institute for Problems in Mechanics (since 1966), where, since 1988, he has been Head of Laboratory on Mechanics of Strength and Fracture of Materials and Structures organized by him. In 1968, R. V. Goldstein defended his Ph.D. thesis "Surface Waves and Resonance Phenomena in Elastic Bodies" (his scientific supervisors were G. I. Barenblatt and R. L. Salganik), and in 1983, he defended his D.Sc. thesis "Studies in Fracture Mechanics of Large-Size Structures."

R. V. Goldstein's papers in mechanics of solids and in the field of its applications are widely known in our country and abroad. He obtained fundamental results in mathematical and dynamical theory of elasticity, fracture mechanics, mechanics of materials, mechanics of ice and ice cover, micro- and nanomechanics, and mechanics of contact interaction of deformable solids.

In the field of dynamical theory of elasticity, R. V. Goldstein studied the resonance phenomena in elastic bodies that accompany the crack propagation and the motion of loads and indentors with velocities close to the Rayleigh velocity. Considering the nonstationary stage of load motion on the half-space boundary, he analyzed specific characteristics of elastic fields that arise in the process of stabilization near the Rayleigh velocity, which allowed him to explain the resonance phenomena observed in transition through the Rayleigh velocity. He discovered and studied the resonance phenomena observed in the case of crack propagation along the interfaces between materials with different elastic properties. It turned out that the characteristic velocities, typical of different modes of crack propagation, are the Rayleigh velocities for each of the contacting materials, the Stoneley wave velocity, and the velocities of surface waves due to incomplete contact of materials at the interface (the sliding condition on the interface and the conditions of possible separation of materials from each other with no slip). In the last case, he found a new type of surface waves. Later, these waves were registered in some earthquakes.

A large cycle of papers by R. V. Goldstein, V. M. Entov, and E. I. Shifrin were devoted to the development of qualitative methods of elasticity and fracture mechanics that permit constructing two-sided and isoperimetric estimates of local and integral characteristics of solutions of the corresponding spatial problems and, in particular, estimating the stress intensity factors for cracks of complicated shape and finding sufficient conditions for structure fracture or nondestruction. The results obtained by R. V. Goldstein and V. M. Entov were summarized in the monograph "Qualitative Methods in Continuum Mechanics" (1989, in Russian), which was translated into English and published in England in 1994.

R. V. Goldstein developed methods for asymptotic and numerical solution of spatial mixed problems of elasticity, including the problems with unknown boundaries. He developed efficient projection methods for numerical solution of boundary integral equations and minimization of boundary functionals of spatial problems in crack statics and mechanics. In collaboration with his colleagues and pupils, R. V. Goldstein implemented these methods as packages of applied programs that are successively used to compute the crack behavior in structural elements. Methods for matched asymptotic expansions were developed to solve three-dimensional problems of elongated cracks in elastic space and in a layer. Methods for studying and solving three-dimensional contact problems and problems on cracks with friction, sliding, adhesion, and loading history effects taken into account were proposed in joint papers with Yu. V. Zhitnikov and A. A. Spektor.

R. V. Goldstein developed several models of material and structure fracture. He proposed a semiempirical method for describing fracture of elastoplastic materials with cracks and formulated similarity criteria that permit estimating the fracture conditions for large-size structural elements with cracks from the results of tests with their scaled-down models. He developed a new approach for modelling the fracture and estimating the safety of hierarchical systems. The formation of structures of brittle and quasibrittle fracture of materials (media) with their structure under complicated loading (in particular, under multi-axial compression) taken into account, was modeled in the cycle of papers written in collaboration with N. M. Osipenko. Models of fracture under compression conditions for thin bodies, systems with coating, and natural objects such as ice cover were also developed. The forms of ice cover fracture under the simultaneous action of wind load and the loads caused by the interaction between the ice cover and the icebreaker or a sleetproof construction were classified.

Since the beginning of the 1990s, R. V. Goldstein obtained, in collaboration with his pupils and colleagues, a series of fundamental results in the field of nano- and micromechanics of strength and fracture of materials and structure. These investigations were primarily aimed at the solution of strength and life support problems for micro- and submicroelectronics products. The models were developed and degradation processes arising in multilevel interconnection wiring (conductor lines) in micro- and submicroelectronics products due to the action of mechanical loads and electromigration were modeled. The interconnection wiring life was estimated. The fracture conditions for chip-scale enclosures were modeled under thermomechanical loading. The influence of point defects on the adhesion characteristics in thin-film structures and the conditions resulting in strengthened heterosystem formation in plates (Si substrata) were modeled, and discrete-continuous models of the mechanical behavior of nanotubes and their systems, of graphene plates and their sets, were developed. A generalized model of atomistic crack was proposed and conditions for the continuum approach of the crack theory to be applicable for describing the nanoscale crack growth conditions were obtained.

The results of R. V. Goldstein's fundamental studies are successfully used to solve applied problems. Since the 1990s, R. V. Goldstein (from 1975 to 1990, he was the scientific supervisor on behalf of the Institute for Problems in Mechanics, Russian Academy of Sciences) actively participates in complex projects performed in collaboration with leading specialized organizations in the field of special technology and equipment for transportation, preparation, and processing of hydrocarbon raw materials (1976-2000). As a result of these investigations, several normative documents on the standardization of admissible defects in critical products and structures and on the estimation of their life under mechanical loads and active environmental action were developed and then approved by the appropriate agencies.

As an expert, R. V. Goldstein repeatedly participated in Russian State Commissions on analyzing catastrophic fractures of different complicated technical systems and on working out measures for their prevention.

The results of R. V. Goldstein's studies were published in more than 330 scientific papers, and over 150 of them were published in peer-reviewed Russian and international journals.

R. V. Goldstein pays great attention to young scientists. He created one of the leading schools in the Russian Federation in the field of strength and fracture mechanics, and 18 Ph.D. theses and 5 D.Sc. theses were defended under his supervision. Since 1983, R. V. Goldstein has been combining his scientific activities with teaching as Professor at MATI- K. E. Tsiolkovskii Russian State Technological University. R. V. Goldstein was one of the initiators of the project to open a MATI branch of the Chair of Physics at the Institute for Problems in Mechanics (IPM), Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), with the goal of educating scientific personnel specializing in the field of strength and fracture of materials and structures. As head of this chair branch and IPM RAS head of the IPM RAS-MATI Scientific-Educational Center "Mechanics and Its Applications in Engineering and Technology" R. V. Goldstein greatly advances the development of this new speciality.

R. V. Goldstein has done much to organize studies in the field of fracture mechanics in our country and abroad. He is at the head of projects launched by the Russian Federation Ministry of Education and Science and by the Russian Academy of Sciences, is the Scientific Secretary of the RAS Scientific Council in the complex problem "Mechanics," and Vice President of the RAS Scientific Council in mechanics of solids. Since 1996, R. V. Goldstein has been a Member of the Executive Committee of the European Society of Structure Strength and since 2001, a Member of Committee of Directors of International Congress on Fracture. In 2005-2009, he was Vice President of the International Fracture Congress. In 1993, R. V. Goldstein was elected Honored Member of the International Fracture Congress, and in 2009, Full Member of the European Academy of Sciences. R. V. Goldstein is a member of the editorial boards of several international and Russian scientific journals (in particular, Int. J. of Fracture and Fatigue and Fracture of Eng. Materials and Structures), and Executive Secretary of the editorial board of the journal "Izvestiya RAN. Mekhanika Tverdogo Tela." As a scientific editor, R. V. Goldstein prepared 17 books and special issues of international journals.

R. V. Goldstein's scientific and educational achievements were marked by governmental awards. In 2008, he was awarded the title of "Honored Scientist of the Russian Federation." In 2000, in collaboration with other authors, R. V. Goldstein was awarded the State Prize of the Russian Federation in science and technology.

The editorial board and the editorial staff of the journal "Izvestiya RAN. Mekhanika Tverdogo Tela," R. V. Goldstein's pupils and colleagues, heartily congratulate Robert Veniaminovich and wish him strong health and many new creative achievements.
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