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in January 1966
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IssuesArchive of Issues2008-1pp.131-136

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Yu. K. Bivin, "Penetration of rigid bodies into loose and layered media," Mech. Solids. 43 (1), 131-136 (2008)
Year 2008 Volume 43 Number 1 Pages 131-136
DOI 10.3103/S0025654408010135
Title Penetration of rigid bodies into loose and layered media
Author(s) Yu. K. Bivin (Institute for Problems in Mechanics, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr-t Vernadskogo 101, str. 1, Moscow, 119526, Russia)
Abstract Penetration and motion of rigid bodies in ground media attracts the researchersí attention because of various problems arising as the technology evolves. In fact, there are two independent directions of studies in this field: (1) the problem of earth excavation when a rigid body of a definite shape slowly moves along a given trajectory in the ground; (2) an impact of a rapidly flying free rigid or deformable body against the ground. In the latter case, to which the proposed studies pertain, it is sometimes of interest to study the medium behavior and the motion of the free body, which moves in the medium after the impact owing to the kinetic energy of itself. In this field, a majority of studies deal with collision and penetration of bodies of various shapes into clay media. An extensive survey of these studies is given in [1]. After this survey appeared, numerous paper dealing with complicated collision conditions have been published [2]. Penetration in loose media has been studied much more rarely. The direct collision with fractured rock was studied in connection with the expected landing of spacecraft on other planets [3, 4]. In this case, the influence of grain dimensions and the density of the filling and vacuum on the penetration was studied for the initial velocities in the range of 1.7-10 m/s. On the other hand, in [5], the results of investigating the penetration of conic bodies in sand at entry velocities of 700-900 m/s are given; these velocities significantly exceed the speed of sound in this medium, which lies in the range of 100-200 m/s for dry sand. Analyzing the experimental results, the author came to the conclusion that it is necessary to use different representations of the drag force in the supersonic and subsonic modes. In the present paper, we do not consider the influence of the grain distribution, sand density, and filling methods on the penetration. But, as follows from the experiments whose results are described in [6] and [7], to represent the results of penetration of rigid bodies at velocities up to several hundreds of meters per second, in addition to the characteristics listed above, it is also required to describe the technology of the experiment preparation, because such media have the property of shape "memory."
1.  M. E. Backman and W. Goldsmith, "The Mechanics of Penetration of Projectiles into Targets," Intern. J. Engng. Sci. 16(1), 1-99 (1978).
2.  W. Goldsmith, "Review: Non-Ideal Projectile Impact on Targets," Intern. J. Impact Engng. 22(2-3), 95-395 (1999).
3.  D. J. Roddi, J. B. Rittenhouse, and R. F. Scott, "Dynamic Penetration Studies in Crushed Rock under Atmospheric and Vacuum Conditions," Raketn. Tekhn. Kosm., No. 4, 125-131 (1963).
4.  L. Wang Wen, "Experimental Study of Projectile Penetration in Ottawa at Low Velocities," J. Spacecraft and Rockets 6(4), 497-498 (1969).
5.  U. Allen, Z. Mayfield, and G. Morrison, "Dynamics of Shell Penetration in Soils," Mekh. Sborn. Perev. Obzorov Inostr. Period. Liter., No. 6, 125-137 (1957).
6.  Yu. K. Bivin, "Oblique Impact of Rigid Body on Ground or Water," Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR. Mekh. Tverd. Tela, No. 6, 185-189 (1989) [Mech. Solids (Engl. Transl.)].
7.  Yu. K. Bivin, "Motion of a Rigid Body in a Perturbed Medium," Izv. Akad. Nauk. Mekh. Tverd. Tela, No. 5, 91-98 (2002) [Mech. Solids (Engl. Transl.) 37 (5), 75-81 (2002)].
8.  Yu. K. Bivin, V. A. Kolesnikov, and L. M. Flitman, "Determining Mechanical Properties of a Medium by the Dynamic Penetration Method," Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR. Mekh. Tverd. Tela, No. 5, 182-185 (1982) [Mech. Solids (Engl. Transl.)].
9.  Irson Recht, "Dynamics of Ballistic Punching," Proc. Amer. Soc. Mech. Engng., Ser. E: Appl. Mech., No. 3, 73-80 (1963).
10.  S. S. Grigoryan (Editor), Impact Dynamics (Mir, Moscow, 1985) [in Russian].
Received 13 April 2005
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