| ||Mechanics of Solids|
A Journal of Russian Academy of Sciences
in January 1966
Issued 6 times a year
Print ISSN 0025-6544
Online ISSN 1934-7936
Archive of Issues
|Total articles in the database:|| ||3710|
|In Russian (Èçâ. ÐÀÍ. ÌÒÒ):|| ||2096|
|In English (Mech. Solids):|| ||1614|
| "Alexander Yul'evich Ishlinskii (on the 90th anniversary of his birth)," Mech. Solids. 38 (4), 169-181 (2003)|
||Alexander Yul'evich Ishlinskii (on the 90th anniversary of his birth)|
||Alexander Yul'evich Ishlinskii is an outstanding
scientist of the 20th century
in the field of mechanics. He is an author of fundamental investigations
in mechanics of deformable solids, dynamics of rigid bodies, theory of
gyroscopes, and inertial navigation. He has founded new areas in the
branches of science to which he devoted his talent of a scientist, engineer,
and remarkable educator.|
Ishlinskii was born on August 6, 1913. His father served as
a machine quartermaster of the cruiser "Bogatyr" during
the Russo-Japanese war. He was deprived of the nobiliary title
for his participation in the Kronstadt rebellion (1906).
In 1931, Ishlinskii entered the Department of Mechanics and Mathematics
of Moscow State University as a second year student. Since then, his life
and activity had been closely tied with this university and this department
for more than 70 years. N. N. Bukhgol'ts, V. V. Golubev, M. A. Lavrent'ev,
A. P. Minakov, A. I. Nekrasov, M. M. Filonenko-Borodich, A. Ya. Khinchin,
and many other brilliant professors of the that time Moscow University
were among his teachers.
Subsequently, he said: Moscow University is
infinitely dear to me. Professors of Moscow University always drew our
attention to the necessity to learn the new during all our life and showed a
brilliant example of following this principle. None of them was ever proud
of his/her great erudition or embarrassed to confess to chance
lack of knowledge of a separate issue. With all my might I am trying to
follow examples and check for instructions of my teachers, because I find
these deeply right. I personally am deeply indebted to Moscow University. I
am happy to learn from first-class scientists, take part in scientific
seminars, deliver lectures, conduct classes, and be glad of achievements of
my students. The spirit of the university-logical sequence of arguments,
thorough analysis of experimental data, and rigor of statements
and thinking-has always directed my life and activities.
In 1938, Ishlinskii defended his candidate (Ph.D.) dissertation on the topic
"Rolling friction", and in 1943 his doctoral (D.Sc.) dissertation
on the topic "Mechanics of incompletely elastic and viscoplastic bodies."
Since 1944, he had been a professor of Moscow University.
Since his being a Ph.D. student, Ishlinskii had been involved
in intensive versatile activity as an educator at the L. B. Krasin
of Electrical Engineers, Moscow State University, N. E. Bauman
Higher Technical School, Moscow Power Engineers Institute, Institute
of Automotive Engineers, K. Liebknecht Pedagogical Institute,
and V. V. Kuibyshev Academy of Military Engineers. Since 1943 to 1945
he was the head of the chair of theoretical mechanics at Moscow
School of Military Engineers.
In 1940, Ishlinskii began his work in instrument-making industry.
Contacts with a remarkable
engineer N. N. Ostryakov, greatest designers,
with S. F. Farmakovskii being among them, and
famous Academician A. N. Krylov defined
his interests and directions of investigations
in the field of gyro engineering and precise instrument-making.
In 1947, Ishlinskii moved to Kiev on the invitation of
Academician M. A. Lavrent'ev. There he was elected a Full Member
(Academician) of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist
Republic (AN UkrSSR) and appointed the Director of the Institute of
Mathematics of that Academy. Under the direction of A. Yu. Ishlinskii, new
fields of applied science were developed at the AN UkrSSR Institute of
Mathematics and new departments were organized, with the Department of
General Mechanics being among these. The Kiev school of scientists in the
field of mechanics, primarily in mechanics of gyro systems and inertial
navigation, was formed. A. Yu. Ishlinskii established a
wide-ranging cooperation of the AN UkrSSR Institute of Mathematics with
instrument-making organizations in Moscow, Leningrad, and Kiev. He took
part in full-scale testing of navigation devices at Northern latitudes, on
Franz Josef Land. At Kiev University, he delivered original courses in
plasticity, theory of gyroscopes, plane problem of elasticity, and history
In 1955, Ishlinskii returned to Moscow but continued to support
his creative scientific contacts with his colleagues and former
students in Kiev up to the last days of his life.
Since 1956, Ishlinskii had been the Head of the Chair
of Applied Mechanics at Moscow State University. (Subsequently,
this chair was renamed the Chair of Applied Mechanics and
Control Processes.) In 1959, he was appointed the Director
of the Institute of Mechanics at Moscow State University.
In 1960, he was elected a Full Member (Academician)
of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Since 1964 till 1990, Ishlinskii
was the Director of the Institute for Problems in Mechanics
of the USSR Academy of Sciences (currently, the Institute for
Problems in Mechanics of the Russian Academy of Sciences).
Under his direction, this Institute became the most authoritative
scientific center of the USSR in the field of mechanics.
Scientific creative work of Ishlinskii is characterized
by a breadth and variety of his scientific interests, from issues
of fundamental theoretical value to specific applied problems.
In solid mechanics, these issues cover the behavior of elastic,
plastic, viscoplastic, and hereditary media, static and dynamic
fracture of bodies and structures, as well as many other problems.
His investigations in the theory of rolling resistance
are associated with the construction of models
of relaxing media. He has proposed and analyzed a model of
rolling process based on concepts of deformation of the foundation
(soils or other relaxing media). He has analyzed the arrangement
of slip and adhesion zones during rolling on the basis
of Coulomb's friction model and explained effects associated
with dry friction and dynamics determined by this phenomenon.
These investigations initiated numerous subsequent studies.
When considering the flow and stability of viscoplastic media,
Ishlinskii made a choice in favor of Euler's representation
of the flow. This representation turned out to be quite adequate
for the description of flow of rigid-plastic media.
He had a premonition about the role of piecewise smooth
loading surfaces and proposed a new piecewise smooth
plasticity condition-the maximum reduced stress condition.
This condition, together with the maximum tangential stress
condition (Tresca's condition), restricts the class of admissible
non-concave plasticity conditions for a perfectly plastic isotropic
body. He gave a numerical solution to the problem of the
determination of the limiting load for the impression of
a smooth punch with a circular or spherical base into
a perfectly plastic half-space (Brinell test).
When constructing general relations of perfect plasticity,
Ishlinskii proceeded from Saint-Venant's statically
determinate relations for the plane problem. He has stated
relations of 3D perfect plasticity for intersection of two
yield surfaces. In these relations, he did not utilize
the hypothesis of proportionality of the stress deviator
to the strain rate deviator and thus obtained relations
corresponding to the generalized associated yield law.
Subsequently, Ishlinskii with his co-authors
obtained far-reaching developments of these results.
He has created a theory of translational
hardening of a plastic material. He proposed a mechanical model
that described the phenomenon of hardening due to the change
in the internal stresses. Based on this model, he obtained general
relations for a hardening plastic material. These relations
describe, in particular, such phenomena as induced anisotropy
and Bauschinger effect.
The remarkable experiments by M. A. Lavrent'ev which
discovered the formation
of various harmonics during the dynamic compression of a pipe
initiated investigations of
Lavrent'ev and Ishlinskii
on dynamic stability of elastic and inelastic systems.
These investigations were based on the analysis of the change of initial
deviations with time. A cycle of investigations by Ishlinskii
involved the study of imperfect elasticity, vibration, and fracture
of solids. He considered processes of rolling and drawing at high
strain rates, the motion of sand, the formation of residual strains
during unloading of elastic-plastic bodies, as well as a number of other
It is worthwhile to note his fine analysis of the process of growth of
a crack in an elastic body in the presence of adhesive forces.
Using an example of widening of a rectilinear cut (a crack)
by distributed forces applied along the normal to both edges
of the cut, he settled many of the issues
that had caused discussions previously.
First studies by Ishlinskii in the theory of gyroscopes
started in 1940 and were devoted to the geometry and kinematics
of gimbals, in which almost all gyroscopic systems and devices are installed.
To calculate various kinds of errors in the determination of the coordinates
of remote objects he applied an analytical approach and obtained
a number of exact results in the mechanics of finite rotations.
He has stated and proved the classical theorem of solid angle accumulation.
This theorem has entered texts and handbooks related to the determination
of the accuracy of stabilization of various objects. Ishlinskii
consistently and systematically investigated phenomena that could influence
the accuracy of gyro devices. In his works, he has analyzed the influence
of the stiffness of the structure, vibration, and friction on the behavior
of gyro devices. He has created a theory of new gyro devices
(air-suspended vertical gyro, multi-rotor attitude-and-heading reference
device, directional gyro, rolling compensator gyro),
as well as a theory of a gyro pendulum and a directional gyro moving
along the Earth sphere. A fine investigation by Ishlinskii
of the bound of the methodical error of a stabilizer directional gyro
moving along the Earth surface was of fundamental importance for
solving the problem of autonomous navigation in North Pole region,
in which the directional gyro was the only means for
He has found conditions
to be imposed on the parameters of gyro systems and the initial conditions
of their motion to provide independence of the deviation of gyro devices
of the acceleration of maneuvering of objects containing such systems.
A development of his studies in the theory of gyroscopes
was his research on inertial navigation systems.
For a long period, beginning with World War II, his attention
had been drawn to the mechanics of motion of rapidly rotating
bodies. Such processes turned out to be able to be investigated by utilizing
a string suspension. Experiments demonstrated a great variety of stable
and unstable modes of dynamic behavior of an axially symmetric rigid body.
This variety of possible motion modes required much effort for
their description. New steady modes of motion were identified.
of motion of a rigid body on a string suspension
are among the classical studies
in dynamics of a rigid body.
Ishlinskii is an author of more than 300 scientific publications.
Among these publications are fundamental monographs
Mechanics of Special-purpose Gyro Systems (1952),
Mechanics of Gyro Systems (1963),
Inertial Control of Ballistic Missiles (1968),
Orientation, Gyroscopes, and Inertial Navigation (1976),
Mechanics of Relative Motion and Inertial Forces (1981),
Applied Problems in Mechanics (1987, in two volumes),
Classical Mechanics and Inertial Forces (1987),
Rotation of a Rigid Body on a String and Related Problems
(1991, co-authored by V. A. Storozhenko and M. E. Temchenko),
Mathematical Theory of Plasticity
(2002, co-authored by D. D. Ivlev),
and Stability Analysis of Complex Mechanical Systems
(2002, co-authored by V. A. Storozhenko and M. E. Temchenko).
These monographs treat highly complex issues of many sections
of mechanics. New and new generations of young scientists and
engineers are utilizing and will utilize these monographs to
In his creative work, Ishlinskii frequently turned
to the analysis of scientific achievements and the history
and methodology of mechanics. He has written a number of review
papers and presented these in numerous scientific seminars,
conferences, and symposia. He has authored the book
Mechanics: Ideas, Problems, and Applications (1985).
The scope of this book is rather diverse.
It covers historical perspectives of the development of mechanics,
the analysis of achievements in this science, problems, and the place
of mechanics among other exact and natural sciences.
Deep insight into the essence of phenomena under discussion
and a tendency to present a complete and objective history
of an issue are characteristic of Ishlinskii. The cited book
contains a brilliant essay about Galileo Galilei and essays about
late contemporaries of the author. These essays have been written
with deep respect for these persons and their achievements in science.
In 1965, Ishlinskii was appointed the Chairman of Scientific
and Methodological Council on Theoretical Mechanics at the Ministry
of Higher and Specialized Secondary Education of the USSR. He had always
stood upon the role and the value of theoretical mechanics as a basic
discipline and prevented attempts to exclude it from
university curricula as an independent subject.
He managed a great editorial work. For many years
he was the Editor-in-Chief of the journal Mechanics of Solids,
the Editor-in-Chief of a number of periodicals and other editions,
and a member of editorial boards of many journals.
Scientific achievements, organizational work for science, and educational
and social activity of Ishlinskii have received high assessment
from the Government of his country. He was honored
with the title of Hero of Socialist Labor,
decorated with three Orders of Lenin, the Order of October Revolution,
two Orders of the Red Banner of Labor, two Orders of People's Friendship,
the Badge of Honor, the Order of Cyrill
and Methodius Class I (Bulgaria),
and many medals.
He was awarded the Lenin Prize (1960),
the State Prize of the USSR (1981), the State Prize of the Russian Federation
(1996), the N. N. Ostryakov Prize (1975), the A. A. Dinnik Prize (1981),
the V. G. Shukhov Gold Medal (1992), many other prizes named after
outstanding scientists, and medals of various international academies and
He was the first President of All-Union Council
of Scientific and Engineering Societies (1970-1991), the Honorary
President of the Russian Engineering Academy, President of the International
Federation of Engineering Organizations (1987-1991), and Vice-President
of the International Federation of Scientists. He was a foreign member
of the Academies of Sciences of Poland and the Czech Republic
Academies of Great Britain and Mexico.
His constant creative participation in the development
of topical directions of science and technology, clear statement
of problems to be solved, brilliant presentation of the material,
the ability to obtain clear complete results by simple means,
personal charm, tactfulness, and cheerfulness attracted young
people searching for new ideas and applications for their creative
force. Former students and successors of Ishlinskii
utilize and develop his ideas and apply his results when designing
and manufacturing various mechanical devices and structures.
Many of his students have become outstanding
Acuity of thought, competence, correctness, and benevolence were inherent
in Ishlinskii. He had an exceptionally powerful intelligence
and an astonishing scientific intuition. His opinions were thoroughly
justified, his assessments of events and people were sober and
weighted. He defined his place and attitude to life as follows:
A scientist is not a politician. He should follow his vocation
and influence the surrounding world mostly by laws of nature discovered
by him. In this case, he will demand less from society and more from
himself. A. Yu. Ishlinskii has left us an example of an exceptionally
high strictness with respect to himself.
The entire age-the age of M. V. Keldysh, M. A. Lavrent'ev, S. P. Korolev,
and V. I. Kuznetsov-has ended with the death of
A. Yu. Ishlinskii.
He has left an indelible trace in science. His achievements
have entered the golden treasury of mechanics.